Naturopathic doctors are family practice-oriented primary health care doctors. Naturopathic doctors’ training consists of a four year, graduate level, accredited naturopathic medical school after the completion of a four year undergraduate degree. The first two years of schooling are like those of a conventional physician (MD, DO), the majority of time spent on basic sciences (anatomy, physiology, pathology, etc.). The additional two years also consist of specialized academic courses (cardiology, gynecology, gastroenterology, urology, neurology, etc.). Both study modern physical, clinical and laboratory diagnosis and are trained to diagnose and treat disease. Both refer patients to other health care providers or specialists when appropriate. And finally, both are required to pass a similar board examination to become licensed. For more information see ‘training’.